spray research has developed and
extensively validated a comprehensive set of
governing spray sampling and experimental setup.
Our rigorous application of these SOP's assures highly repeatable test data
and minimizes the introduction of undocumented experimental biases.
Occasionally, severe experimental conditions may require deviations from the
established protocols. At other times, the specific goals of a particular study may also
require deviations or the development of custom protocols. All deviations
from the SOP's are fully documented and assessed for their impact on the
There are, surprisingly, no accepted national or international standards
governing the sampling protocols to be used in characterizing the sprays
produced by the wide variety of spray atomizers currently available.
The sprays produced by
industrial-scale atomizers are far from homogeneous. Large variations in droplet
diameter, velocity and flux density often occur within millimeters or
centimeters across the spray envelope. These variations are partly
dependent on the atomizer design and operating conditions. Additional variations are generated by
geometrical asymmetries, eccentricities and material defects [burrs, porosity,
scale, roughness, inclusions etc.] introduced into the subject atomizer by the manufacturing
These characteristics of real-world sprays make the choice of sampling
locations that are truly representative of the entire spray quite challenging.
This is especially true when reasonable cost considerations dictate that the
duration of the testing be kept as short as possible.
The protocols governing data reporting, instrument validation and instrument
setup are in accordance to the several relevant national and international standards that
address the characterization of sprays: